Peptide Growth Factors in GI Mucosal Growth (2023)

The intestinal tissues express a variety of peptide growth factors that modulate several functional properties of different intestinal cell populations, including the intestinal epithelium and lamina propria cell populations. These peptide growth factors are characterized by relatively low molecular weight of less than 25 kDa, and they generally exert their effects through binding to specific high-affinity cell-surface receptors present on their respective target cells [95,97,174,175]. In contrast to classical peptide hormones that are released to circulatory system for delivery to distant target organs or cells, peptide growth factors tend to act locally on adjacent cells (paracrine or juxtacrine action) or on the same cells that have expressed the peptide factors (autocrine action) (Figure 9). Although the full variety of peptide growth factors that are implicated in the control of the intestinal epithelium and nonepithelial compartment of the intestine remains to be demonstrated, an increasing body of evidence shows the diversity of these peptides and their importance in the regulation of GI mucosal growth. These peptides include members of epidermal growth factor (EGF) family, the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family, fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family, the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) family, the trefoil factor family (TFF), and few other peptides described in Table 1. These growth factors are generally produced by intestinal mesenchymal tissues and regulate epithelium and nonepithelial tissue functions, such as cellular proliferation, differentiation, migration, and cytoprotection.

Peptide Growth Factors in GI Mucosal Growth (1)


Ectodomain shedding of EGFR ligands and its consequences for signaling. Membrane-bound molecules can activate the EGFR of neighbor cells (juxtacrine mechanism). Following proteolytic release, the soluble EGF module activates the EGFR of neighbor cells (more...)

Peptide Growth Factors in GI Mucosal Growth (2)

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Peptide growth factors and their target cells in the gastrointestinal system.

As shown in Table 1, the constituents of this network possess multiple functional properties and exhibit pleiotropism in their cellular sources and targets; they are highly redundant in several dimensions. For example, each cell type appears to produce more than one peptide growth factors, whereas each peptide may be produced by multiple different cell populations within the intestinal tract. In addition, most cell populations express receptors specific for more than one peptide growth factors, while receptors for a single growth factor are present on multiple cell types. Furthermore, functional effects of a certain growth factor are modulated by the co-presence of other factors, and structurally related multiple members of a peptide growth factor may interact with a single receptor. In this chapter, we briefly describe the roles and mechanisms of peptide growth factors of EGF family, TGF-β family, IGF family, and FGF family in the regulation of GI mucosal growth.


The EGF family consists of different peptides including EGF, TGF-α, amphiregulin, heparin-binding EGF (HB-EGF), betacellulin, epiregulin, and neuregulin. All of them exhibit mitogenic activity upon binding to four different high-affinity receptors: EGFR/ErbB1, HER2/ErbB2, HER3/ErbB3, and HER4/ErbB4. Members of the EGF family are characterized by three properties: (i) the ability to bind to the EGF receptors, (ii) the capacity to mimic the biological activities of EGF, and (iii) amino acid sequence similarity to EGF. In fact, the overall identity of sequences within all members of the EGF family is approximately 20% [176]. EGF and TGF-α are the prototype members of the EGF family. In the GI tract, EGF is produced in submaxillary glands and Brunner's glands in the duodenum. Small amounts of EGF are also produced within exocrine pancreas; it is also present in gastric juice and within the intestinal lumen. In the early postnatal life, the breast milk is also a major source of EGF [177]. EGF produces a variety of biological responses, most of which are involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and/or differentiation, cell movement, and survival in epidermal as well as epithelial tissues [177,178]. The EGFR/ErbB1 is well characterized and possibly the most biologically important receptor for EGF family members in the GI epithelium, although additional EGFRs are also identified in normal and fetal GI tissues. In the GI epithelium, EGF promotes development of the intestinal mucosa, promotes cell proliferation and differentiation, and also enhances mucosal healing after injury [27,179].

EGF is a potent stimulator of cell division in epithelial and nonepithelial cell types in the GI tract, and specific EGF receptors are widely distributed in many cell types. The widespread distribution of EGFRs, including a variety of cells committed to terminal differentiation, suggests that EGF and/or another member of the EGF family have a range of biological functions beyond their mitogenic activity. EGF is shown to modulate the expression of enzymes involved in the production of cellular polyamines, to up-regulate intestinal electrolyte and nutrient transport in the enterocyte, to stimulate expression of brush border enzymes, to attenuate intestinal damage, and to enhance GI mucosal healing after injury [180,181]. For example, Berlanga-Acosta et al. [182] reported that the continuously infusing EGF for long periods (14 days) by implanting osmatic minipump subcutaneously in rats increases intestinal epithelial cell proliferation and induces the crypt and villus areas in the small intestine. This stimulatory effect of EGF occurs as early as 24 h after EGF infusion, but its maximal stimulation is observed 6 days thereafter. Another study conducted by Cellini et al. [183] revealed that infusing EGF directly into intra-amniotic fluid in pregnant rats during the last 8 days of gestational period results in a significant increase in fetal weight, intestinal villus height, and DNA synthesis within the crypts.

Recently, Kang et al. [184] demonstrated that oral administration of recombinant EGF together with probiotic bacteria for 14 days stimulates intestinal development and reduces the incidence of pathogen infection and diarrhea in pigs. Intestinal length, jejunal and duodenal villus heights are greater in animals treated with EGF and probiotic bacteria compared to controls and animals treated with EGF or probiotic bacteria alone. Immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) revealed that the proliferation of intestinal cells was significantly greater in the EGF+ probiotic bacteria administered group. Studies conducted by these authors in their earlier observations [186] also showed that the administration of recombinant EGF increased mean villus height, crypt depth, and enterocyte proliferation compared to control mice fed with phosphate-buffered saline. EGF also has a beneficial effect on the intestinal development and growth of newly weaned mice. Based on these observations, it has been suggested that the combination of EGF with probiotic approach could provide the possibility for formulating dietary supplements for children during their weaning transition stages [184,185].

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TGF-α has been characterized as a product of many cell types, including most epithelial cells in the GI tract. The mRNA and protein levels of TGF-α have been identified in human and rodent stomach, small intestinal and colonic epithelium. The biological activities of TGF-α are mediated through the same receptor as EGF. In 1999, Montaner et al. [188] showed the immunolocalization of TGF-α in the rat gastroduodenal region. In the stomach, the surface and gastric pit cells showed increased immunostaining of TGF-α in the cytoplasm and basolateral and apical membranes. In the duodenum, the enterocytes co-express both TGF-α and EGFR in the supranuclear area. These immunolocalization studies demonstrate that the co-expression of TGF-α and EGFR in the rat GI tract suggests a functional role in the establishment and maintenance of the epithelial renewal. Simultaneously, in vivo studies conducted in rats showed that TGF-α administration resulted in a significant increase in mucosal weight, DNA and protein content, and villus height in jejunum and ileum and also induced crypt depth in jejunum and ileum. Important functions of TGF-α in the GI tract include trophic effects on mucosa, stimulator of epithelial and nonepithelial cell proliferation, alterations of expression involved in the mucosal development, promotion of growth of intestinal neoplasia, enhancement of epithelial restitution, and stimulation of angiogenesis.

The biological actions of EGF and its family of peptides are mediated via interaction with EGFR, which is detected throughout the fetal and neonatal GI tract. EGFR is predominantly expressed in the villus tip cells in young pigs still fed on maternal milk, but after weaning, it was more concentrated in Brunner gland and in goblet cells [189]. Kuwada et al. [190] reported that total cellular EGFR protein and mRNA transcript levels are relatively unchanged during cell differentiation in vitro, but the expression of surface EGFR and patterns of expressed EGF-ligand changed significantly. It is likely that EGFR system is regulated during intestinal epithelial cell differentiation primarily at the level of ligand expression. In addition, it has been shown that integrin α5/β1 mediates fibronectin-induced epithelial cell proliferation through the activation of the EGFR.

In another study conducted by Duh et al. [191], they have demonstrated the specific roles of EGFR during embryonic gut development by using EGFR knock-out mouse model. EGFR activation appears to accelerate the maturation rate of goblet cells and to induce differential crypt/villus proliferation pattern in early embryonic mouse gut. Moreover, the human milk induces fetal small intestinal cell proliferation through the mechanism involving different tyrosine kinase signaling pathways via the EGFR [192] (Figure 9). Taylor et al. [193] showed that the activation of EGFR enhances intestinal adaptation after massive small-bowel resection as indicated by taller villi, deeper crypt areas, and augmented enterocyte proliferation. Defective EGFR signaling in mutant mice exhibits increased apoptosis and reduction in bcl-2 family gene expression [194,195].


TGF-β is a family of structurally homologous dimeric proteins consisting of at least three isoforms, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 [196]. The prototypic member of the TGF-β family in the GI tract is TGF-β1, although other two isoforms of TGF-β may be also detected in all GI tract tissues and accessory organs. TGF-β is synthesized as a large precursor propeptide [197]. Despite intracellular cleavage, the TGF-β1 dimer remains in a biological inactive complex with the two propeptide segments through noncovalent association, the so-called latent form. The biological processes regulating the bioactivation of TGF-β from its latent state have not been completely defined. TGF-β1 has been found to bind to several specific cell surface TGF-β receptors (TβRs) localized in responsive cells. There are five different types of receptors (TβRI through TβRV), and among them, TβRI and II isoforms are Ser/Thr-specific protein kinases that are believed to be primarily responsible for TGF-β induced cellular responses in the GI tract [198]. It has been shown that TβRI and TβRII work in a cooperative fashion: ligand binding to the TβRI facilitates activation of the associated TβRII, which then activates the intracellular signaling machine via Smad proteins [199]. Within the small intestine, TGF-β expression has been found in lamina propria and almost all the epithelial cells [200]. The major activity of TGF-β is to inhibit the growth of most cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells, but in some instances, TGF-β also stimulates the growth of certain mesenchyme cells, such as in skin fibroblasts [196]. The GI mucosal growth inhibitory responses to TGF-β have been intensively investigated in vitro as well as in vivo, although the mechanism underlying the inhibitory effects of TGF-β remains to be fully understood.

Targeted disruption of the TGF-β gene by gene knock-out technology results in multiple focal inflammatory cell infiltration and/or necrosis, indicating the role of TGF-β in both inflammation and tissue repair. Mice homozygous for the mutated TGF-β allele exhibit no gross developmental abnormalities at birth, but they develop severe and multifocal inflammatory diseases that affect several organs, including diffuse inflammation in the stomach and intestine. In fact, TGF-β deficiency leads to severe pathology, causing death at about 20 days of age associated with dysfunction of the immune and inflammatory system, showing its essential role as a potent regulator of the immune system. Increased expression of TGF-β is also found in the GI mucosa after acute epithelial injury and in patients with active inflammatory bowel diseases.

Results from our laboratory and others show that increasing the levels of TGF-β inhibits intestinal epithelial cell proliferation through activating TβRI/Smad signaling cascade following polyamine depletion (Figure 10) [201203]. The addition of TGF-β to the culture medium significantly decreased the rate of DNA synthesis and final cell number. Increased activation of endogenous TGF-β/TβRI signaling in polyamine-deficient cells is also associated with an inhibition of intestinal epithelial cell growth, which is partially prevented by the addition of immunoneutralizing anti-TGF-β antibody or inactivation of TβRI activity [202,203]. We have further demonstrated that Smad proteins are the immediate downstream effectors of activated TGF-β/TβRI signaling since Smad silencing prevents inhibitory effects of exogenous TGF-β treatment or activated endogenous TGF-β/TβRI pathway via polyamine depletion on intestinal epithelial cell proliferation [201].

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Peptide Growth Factors in GI Mucosal Growth (3)


Schematic diagram depicting the role of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in the inhibition of normal intestinal cell proliferation following polyamine depletion. In this model, polyamines are the negative regulators for expression of the TGF-β (more...)

Gebhardt et al. reported that TGF-β acts as a novel potent inhibitor of human intestinal mast cells [204]. In this study, mast cells were isolated from the human intestinal mucosa, purified, and cultured in the presence of stem cell factor (SCF) with or without TGF-β1. TGF-β1 was found to dose-dependently inhibit SCF-dependent growth of human intestinal mast cells by decreasing proliferation and enhancing apoptosis. In another study, the prenatal porcine intestine is shown to have low levels of endogenous TGF-β ligand and receptor density, which is associated with an induction in trophic response to enteral diets [205]. There is also a reporter showing that in fetal pigs, the TGF-β ligands are predominantly localized to the crypt epithelium, but staining intensity increased markedly just before term and shifted to the villus epithelium in newborn pigs [206].

In addition, TGF-β and gastrin-releasing peptides (GRP) jointly regulate intestinal epithelial cell division and differentiation [207210]. The treatment with TGF-β together with GRP is found to inhibit intestinal epithelial cell growth and to induce apoptosis much higher than those observed in cells exposed to TGF-β or GRP alone. This combined treatment also induces an induction in cycloxygenase-2 expression and prostaglandin E2 production through activating p38MAPK pathway in cells stably transfected with GRP receptor. In another study, TGF-β transcriptional activity was found to be upregulated in the small intestine after infection of mice with a parasite Trichinella spiralis, which leads to small intestinal inflammation [211]. The TGF-β signaling pathway also plays an essential role in intestinal stem cell development and organogenesis [207,212,213].


IGF family is constituted by two ligands, IGF-I and IGF-II, which are single chain polypeptides consisting of 70 and 67 amino acids, respectively [214]. IGFs are secreted as small peptides (7.5 kDa) that are structurally related to insulin and display multiform effects on cell growth and metabolism in the GI tract [215,216]. Both IGF-I and IGF-II exert their mitogenic activities through interaction with specific IGF-receptors (mainly IGFR-I and IGFR-II), and they are capable of modulating epithelial cell kinetics by stimulating proliferation and inhibiting apoptosis [214]. In rodents, IGFI and IGFII are expressed in diverse sites with intrinsic biological activities. IGF-I is produced by intestinal mesenchymal cells in rats, and it is shown to increase proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells [217]. IGF-II is expressed at high levels in the fetus and lower levels at the adult stages, and its synthesis has been observed in adult liver and extrahepatic tissues [218].

The stimulatory effects of IGFs on the intestine had been identified over almost two decades ago. Recently, therapeutic indications are also defined for a range of candidate bowel disorders and diseases in which accelerated intestinal repair is desirable. IGFs are the potent stimulator of cell proliferation in the intestinal crypts, spurring progression through G1- to the S-phase of the cell cycle. Exogenous administrations of IGFs pharmacologically and systemically to neonatal or adult rats increase intestinal mucosal growth [219]. Continuous administration of IGF-I to adult rats for 14 days causes preferential growth of the GI organs, increase gut weight as a fraction of body weight by up to ∼32%, which is accompanied by increases in crypt cell population and villus cell density. Consistently, overexpression of the IGF transgenically increases growth at the intestinal muscle layers [220]. IGFs have been also demonstrated to promote wound healing in the GI mucosa to exert trophic effects within the intestine and to enhance tumor growth through autocrine mechanism. There is also evidence that IGFs are important in the pathogenesis of fibrosis in Crohn's disease.

Experiments of IGF-I administration in vivo have shown both linear and cross-sectional growth of the GI organs affecting the mucosal and muscularis layers proportionally [221]. These findings suggest clinical application in bowel conditions characterized by impaired growth and repair processes [214,222224]. It is likely that bowel resection, chemotherapy-induced intestinal mucositis, radiation enteritis, and the inflammatory bowel diseases are candidate target conditions that may be beneficial from IGF administration in the first instance [225].

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Members of huge FGF family are 16–18 kDa proteins that control normal growth and differentiation of mesenchymal, epithelial, and neuroectodermal cell types [226]. FGFs also play key roles in growth and survival of stem cells during embryogenesis, tissue regeneration, and carcinogenesis. Both acidic and basic FGFs are the best-characterized members of the FGF family. Although there are limited results available on the expression and physiological functions of FGFs and their receptors in the GI tract, several studies have described the presence of FGF family peptides and their specific receptors in the intestine [174,227]. It has been shown that FGFs appear to act as autocrine growth factors and stimulate intestinal mucosal growth and epithelial cell division. In cultured IEC-6 cells, administration of FGFs increases cell proliferation; and this effect is further enhanced by the addition of heparin. This treatment mimics the in vivo situation of growth factors binding to the extracellular matrix.

Furthermore, FGFs are also shown to promote intestinal epithelial restitution after wounding through TGF-β-dependent pathway in vitro [228]. Helicobacter pylori are the major pathogen for peptic ulcers and chronic atrophic gastritis, and they are also implicated in the pathogenesis of gastric cancer [229]. FGF2 is one of the pro-angiogenic factors and shown to enhance healing of gastric mucosal damage associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. CagA protein and peptide glycan of Helicobacter pylori are phosphorylated by SRC family protein kinases to activate SHP2 phosphatase when they are injected to human gastric epithelial cells [229]. Since SHP2 is a component of docking protein complex for FGF signaling, SHP2 activation results in FGF signaling activation.

FGF signaling pathway networks with Wnt signaling pathway during a variety of cellular processes including early embryogenesis and gastrointestinal morphogenesis [174,230]. Expression analyses on different FGFs revealed that FGF-18 and FGF-20 isoforms are predominantly expressed in epithelial cells derived from the GI tract, and they seem to be the direct targets of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. Wnt signals are transduced through Frizzled seven-transmembrane-type receptors and activate the β-catenin pathway. Wnt-induced transcriptional complex activates transcription of target genes. It has been reported that the promoter of FGF-18, FGF-20, or FGF-7 contains several TCF/β-catenin binding sites, but the exact role of Wnt signal in the regulation of FGF gene transcription remains to be fully defined.

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Several other peptide growth factors and cytokines have also been found to play an important role in maintaining mucosal cell growth under biological and various pathological conditions. These factors include Trefoil factor (TFF) family [231,232], hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) [233], and colony-stimulating factors (CSF) [234]. All TFF, HGF, and CSF are shown to stimulate GI mucosal growth, promote wound healing, modulate epithelial cell apoptosis, and protect the epithelial integrity from damage in response to stressful environments.


What does peptide growth factor do? ›

The major activity of TGF-β is to inhibit the growth of most cell types, including epithelial and endothelial cells, but in some instances, TGF-β also stimulates the growth of certain mesenchyme cells, such as in skin fibroblasts [196].

What is peptide growth? ›

Peptide growth factors are usually characterized by a relatively low molecular weight of less than 25 kDa. Generally, they exert their effects through binding to specific high-affinity cell-surface receptors present on their respective target cells [13].

How do growth factors affect cell growth? ›

Growth factors (GFs) are a group of proteins stimulating the growth of specific tissues. GF plays important roles in the regulation of cell division that drives cell proliferation. Each GF binds to a specific cell–surface receptor.

What causes growth factor? ›

Growth factors, which generally considered as a subset of cytokines, refer to the diffusible signaling proteins that stimulate cell growth, differentiation, survival, inflammation, and tissue repair. They can be secreted by neighboring cells, distant tissues and glands, or even tumor cells themselves.

How long do growth factors take to work? ›

Red cell growth factors work by signaling your bone marrow stem cells to make more red blood cells. It may take between 2 and 6 weeks for them to work.

How do peptides reduce inflammation? ›

Several endogenous peptides identified during inflammatory responses showed anti-inflammatory activities by inhibiting, reducing, and/or modulating the expression and activity of mediators.

Are peptides good? ›

Peptides are strings of amino acids that make up important components in the body such as proteins. Peptides are not only important for the skin, but also, the rest of your body as well. Without them, your body would fall apart. By supplementing your body with peptides, you can stay healthy and active even as you age.

What do you mean by peptide? ›

(PEP-tide) A molecule that contains two or more amino acids (the molecules that join together to form proteins). Peptides that contain many amino acids are called polypeptides or proteins.

How much does peptide therapy cost? ›

How much do they cost? Cost varies depending on the peptide and the length of the cycle, but typically will vary between 100$ and 300$. These therapies are not covered by insurance.

What are the 4 growth factors? ›

skin cells (epidermal growth factor, EGF) nerve cells (nerve growth factor, NGF) connective tissue or mesenchymal cells (fibroblast growth factor, FGF) thrombus-forming cells that line blood vessels (platelet- derived growth factor, PDGF)

What are the two factors that affect growth? ›

Normal physical growth during childhood is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors.

What are growth factors in inflammation? ›

Mononuclear cells generate a variety of hormone-like proteins termed growth factors that are instrumental in the evolution and resolution of inflammatory reactions. Many of these growth regulatory molecules have multifunctional properties.

What are the three major growth factors? ›

Examples of protein growth factors are vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). Growth factor specificity to particular cell types is achievable by the expression of highly specific cell surface receptors.

Are growth factors safe? ›

Though the long-term effects of growth factors in skin care have not been robustly studied in a clinical setting, anecdotal evidence from board-certified dermatologists is reassuring when it comes to safety.

Are growth factors worth it? ›

In terms of skin, the research suggests that growth factors are an effective anti aging therapy that help repair and rejuvenate the skin. They improve proliferation and differentation in the epidermis and may even act on dermal fibroblasts for more collagen deposition.

What is the difference between growth factors and peptides? ›

Similar to Growth Factors in that they are both naturally-occurring biological substances, Peptides are molecules made of two or more amino acids. They too act as messengers within the skin, promoting repair and enhancement of collagen production, resulting in the improved appearance of wrinkles.

What is the price of growth factor injections? ›

The average cost of IGF - 1 ( Insulin Like Growth Factor - 1) ( Somatomedin C ) in India is ₹ 2975 if booked through us. The average market price in India is much higher at ₹ 3500.

What is the best peptide for gut inflammation? ›

Peptide Therapy for Anti-Aging, Gut Healing, Tissue Repair & Immune Function. Peptides are an exciting area of medicine and can be used for anti-aging, immune function, gut healing and tissue repair. The most effective peptides are Ipamorelin, CJC-1295, BPC-157 and Thymosin Beta 4.

What is the best peptide for inflammation? ›

If you're suffering from inflammation, physical injuries, or other injuries, then peptides for healing may help speed up your recovery.
Peptides for healing – what are the best options?
  • MGF.
  • Thymosin Beta 4.
  • Collagen.
  • Glutamine.
  • BPC-157.
May 14, 2022

What do peptides do in the digestive system? ›

Thus, gut peptides/hormones have important metabolic effects such as mediating absorption, digestion and the disposal of ingested nutrients into tissues; and, if they have been reliably associated with an unconditioned stimulus mediating satiation, they also inform behavior.

What foods are high in peptides? ›

Keep in mind that peptides are naturally found in many foods, including:
  • Meat.
  • Fish and shellfish.
  • Beans and lentils.
  • Soy.
  • Oats.
  • Flaxseed.
  • Hemp seeds.
  • Wheat.
Mar 25, 2021

What are the risks of peptides? ›

Like all outside interventions, peptides carry risk if proper protocols are not followed.
Some of the more serious risks that rarely occur under professional medical guidance include:
  • Gynecomastia.
  • Irreversible involution of cell receptors.
  • Diabetes.
  • Loss of libido.
  • Organ enlargement.
Mar 11, 2019

What are the negatives of peptides? ›

The peptide hormone abuse can cause motor paralysis, skeletal muscle damage and loss, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, arterial hypertension, sweating, headaches, vomiting and enhances the risk for atherosclerosis, thrombosis, osteoporosis, and cancer.

What is an example of a peptide? ›

Examples of peptides include the hormone oxytocin, glutathione (stimulates tissue growth), melittin (honey bee venom), the pancreatic hormone insulin, and glucagon (a hyperglycemic factor).

What is another name for peptide? ›

In fact, some researchers use the term peptide to refer specifically to oligopeptides, or otherwise relatively short amino acid chains, with the term polypeptide being used to describe proteins, or chains of 50 or more amino acids.

What are the two types of peptides? ›

Peptides are sub-categorized into two groups based on the number of amino acids present in their structures: oligopeptides and polypeptides.

Do insurance companies cover peptides? ›

10 Does My Insurance Cover Peptide Therapy? It depends on your health insurance coverage. If it covers out-of-network care, then yes. But if it doesn't, the costs for the whole treatment are on you.

How long does it take for peptides to work? ›

Peptide therapy has a “loading” period of 3-6 months before full effects are noticed. Benefits start within the first few weeks, increasing synergistically with continued therapy. During this time, a combination of different peptides may be recommended to help achieve optimal results.

Why would a doctor prescribe peptides? ›

Peptide therapy has been used to treat age-related conditions, osteoporosis, obesity, inflammatory disease and even neuropathy issues.

How many types of growth factors are there? ›

There are four kinds of growth factors they are known as, class I, class II, class III and, class IV. Class I- This class includes growth factors that interact with the specific receptor present on the plasma membrane of the cell.

What are growth factors and why are they important? ›

Growth Factors are natural proteins in our body that promote the growth, organization and maintenance of cells and tissues, including the skin. They act as chemical messengers, communicating with skin cells to stimulate growth. They're essential to wound healing and skin repair.

What are the five 5 stages of growth? ›

Using these ideas, Rostow penned his classic Stages of Economic Growth in 1960, which presented five steps through which all countries must pass to become developed: 1) traditional society, 2) preconditions to take-off, 3) take-off, 4) drive to maturity and 5) age of high mass consumption.

Does exercise increase growth factors? ›

Following an acute bout of exercise, the resulting increase in growth factor expression also appears to be transient – elevated after 7–10 days of training and returning to baseline after 28 days [16, 17].

What foods increase growth hormone? ›

Healthy food keeps the HGH production rate to an optimum, by keeping track of your body fat and insulin levels. To maintain a normal range of human growth hormones in the blood, foods rich in melatonin, such as eggs, fish, mustard seeds, tomatoes, nuts, grapes, and raspberries are highly recommended by experts.

What foods promote nerve growth factor? ›

Broccoli, spinach and asparagus all contain vitamin B, a nutrient important for nerve regeneration and nerve function. Spinach, broccoli and kale also contain a micronutrient called alpha-lipoic acid that prevents nerve damage and improves nerve function.

What is the most important factor which affects the growth? ›

Temperature: Because the temperature goes up, so does the pace of growth. Light: Light intensity and duration have an impact on various physiological processes. Water: Water is crucial for plant development. Soil Nutrients: Plants require a sufficient quantity of nutrition to develop properly.

What are the 5 physical factors that affect growth and development? ›

Here are a few factors affecting children's growth and development.
  • Heredity. Heredity is the transmission of physical characteristics from parents to children through their genes. ...
  • Environment. ...
  • Sex. ...
  • Exercise and Health. ...
  • Hormones. ...
  • Nutrition. ...
  • Familial Influence. ...
  • Geographical Influences.

What main factors affect the growth rate? ›

When demographers attempt to forecast changes in the size of a population, they typically focus on four main factors: fertility rates, mortality rates (life expectancy), the initial age profile of the population (whether it is relatively old or relatively young to begin with) and migration.

What does high growth factor mean? ›

Higher than normal levels of IGF-1 may mean gigantism in children or acromegaly in adults. Gigantism and acromegaly are most often caused by a tumor in the pituitary gland, a small organ in the base of the brain that controls many functions, including growth.

What are growth factors in healing? ›

Growth factors play a critical role in modulating inflammatory responses, enhancing granulation tissue formation, and inducing angiogenesis. They are essential for successful matrix formation and remodeling processes in the normal wound healing process.

What are the growth factors in IBD? ›

Several families of growth factors may play an important role in IBD including: epidermal growth factor family (EGF) [transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha), EGF itself, and others], the transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) super family, insulin-like growth factors (IGF), fibroblast growth factors (FGF), ...

What stimulates tissue growth? ›

Basic activity. GH stimulates tissue growth and protein anabolism. These effects are mediated in part by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). The synthesis and secretion of GH are promoted by GHRH and inhibited by somatostatin.

What are the 7 factors that influence growth and development? ›

Factors Affecting The Growth And Development Of Children
  • Heredity : ...
  • Environment : ...
  • Gender : ...
  • Hormones : ...
  • Exercise : ...
  • Nutrition :

What are the benefits of growth factors? ›

Topical growth factors help rejuvenate skin

In fact, growth factors have the ability to communicate with your cells to help stimulate the creation of more collagen and elastin, which in turn keeps skin smooth and firm for a healthy, youthful-looking complexion.

Is growth factor a steroid hormone? ›

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cell proliferation, wound healing, and occasionally cellular differentiation. Usually it is a secreted protein or a steroid hormone.

Can I use growth factor with vitamin C? ›

Can EGF be used with Vitamin C? EGF and Vitamin C work very well together but need a little separation if you are using a Vitamin C product. Many brands of C Serums, especially those with l-ascorbic acid, are formulated at a low pH. The complex ingredients in our EGF Serum can be damaged by the acid.

When should I use growth factor serum? ›

As a general rule of thumb, you should layer it on after any product with a thinner consistency and before thicker products like moisturizer and SPF. Experts have also advised that the serum be applied at night as well to give the product a bigger chance to penetrate your skin and work wonders on it.

Will peptides make me bigger? ›

It can help enhance muscle growth and promote the loss of body fat ( 7 ). It does so, in part, by stimulating the liver to release insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). In turn, IGF-1 triggers muscle protein production and muscle growth.

Does BPC 157 stimulate growth hormone? ›

In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon.

Do peptides increase testosterone? ›

In men, LH stimulates the production of testosterone. This peptide is used to boost testosterone in men who are not yet candidates for testosterone replacement therapy and to help maintain your own production of testosterone while on testosterone replacement therapy.

What not to mix with growth factors? ›

It can be used with retinoids before bed, and moisturizers can also be layered over them. Acidic ingredients such as Vitamin C, glycolic, and lactic acids should be avoided because they don't play well with the growth factors.

Are growth factor serums worth the money? ›

Are EGF serums worth it? Epidermal Growth Factors (EGF) are derived in a lab from human sources, contributing to their higher cost. EGF products contain countless growth factors, increasing potency and effectiveness. Growth factors derived from human sources are the most effective and are definitely worth the price.

Do peptides have side effects? ›

Reported side effects of peptides and hormones include: Water retention. Numbness of the hands and feet. Increased tiredness.

Do peptides cause hair loss? ›

The short answer is no. Collagen peptides, whether naturally occurring or supplemented, will most likely never cause hair loss. Collagen peptide supplements can actually provide a number of benefits for hair growth, such as stimulating the anagen phase of hair growth and preventing hair damage.

What peptide increases growth hormone? ›

Two peptides that are commonly used as a course of HGH therapy are Sermorelin and Ibutamoren. These peptides have been shown to stimulate the production and release of growth hormone within the body, which can help treat and relieve the symptoms of growth hormone deficiency and yield anti-aging benefits.

How long does it take for BPC to work? ›

These injections are placed just under the surface of the skin in the stomach or at the hip. While some users have claimed to get results in the very first week, it typically takes four to six weeks to feel as though you've healed.

What does BPC 157 do to the brain? ›

BPC 157 modulates serotonergic and dopaminergic systems, beneficially affects various behavioral disturbances that otherwise appeared due to specifically (over)stimulated/damaged neurotransmitters systems.

Are peptides better than steroids? ›

The main difference, however, is that steroids increase testosterone levels unnaturally in the body whereas peptides simply increase the signal allowing the body to create more of this hormone naturally. So, peptides are the much safer option, even though many athletes and bodybuilders still use steroids instead.

How do peptides affect the brain? ›

Specifically designed peptides like Cerebrolysin, Dihexa, Selank, and Semax increase the brain-derived nootropic factor and neuro growth factor. These factors impact the metabolism of the brain and subsequently your ability to focus and overall brain health.


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